Dr. Jung: Well, you see, the type is nothing static. It changes in the course of life, but I most certainly was characterized by thinking. I always thought, from early childhood on, and I had a great deal of intuition too. And I had a definite difficulty with feeling, and my relation to reality was not particularly brilliant. I was often at variance with the reality of things. Now that gives you all the necessary data for a diagnosis! ~Carl Jung, C.G. Jung, 1959 BBC interview
He definitely thought he was introverted; also says he had difficulty with feeling. Doesn't deny his intuition (and most wouldn't deny it either given how intuitive his analytical psychology is). So that leaves INTx really. I have no strong opinion on INTJ or INTP, but maybe INTJ to be honest just because he was enamored with Hitler pre-WW2 and I think INTPs in general seem to be wary of people and emotions like that.
Ni-INFJ. His writing reflects both strong introverted intuition and presence of introverted logic. On socionics forums most people typed him as LII, IEI, and ILI which corresponds to INTP, INFJ, and INTJ in MBTI. The 4th most popular typing is ISTP (LSI) but very few people are in this camp and even watching his interviews he seems to spacey for an Extroverted Sensor.
Some of his quotes sound rather Fe and dejecting of Te. Here, he is basically saying "you want to know people? go out and travel and socialize! you won't learn anything from careful scientific experimentation" - this is not very INTJ if you ask me.
"... Anyone who wants to know the human psyche will learn next to nothing from experimental psychology. He would be better advised to abandon exact science, put away his scholar's gown, bid farewell to his study, and wander with human heart throught the world. There in the horrors of prisons, lunatic asylums and hospitals, in drab suburban pubs, in brothels and gambling-hells, in the salons of the elegant, the Stock Exchanges, socialist meetings, churches, revivalist gatherings and ecstatic sects, through love and hate, through the experience of passion in every form in his own body, he would reap richer stores of knowledge than text-books a foot thick could give him, and he will know how to doctor the sick with a real knowledge of the human soul." ― Carl Jung
and what kind of INTx would say that he purposefully dramatizes his writing? this sounds like Fe was one of this strong valued functions (another famous historical figure who gave preference to dramatic mythologized way of speaking was Hitler, typed as INFJ in MBTI and ENFj in socionics)
Well, there's a disconnect between the way Jung approached typing and the weird compartmentalizing that mbti does for each type. For example, a thinker is influenced subconsciously by feeling and feeling by thinking. MBTI seems to have lost this bit for some reason.
I mean if you think it's better to ignore or disregard the own guy's analysis on his own type (that had his psychological types interpreted and formed into mbti to begin with) in favor of mbti that compartmentalizes thinking and feeling and contradicts his own assessment of himself (and typology I guess), then okay. But I do feel/think different about this.