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Prolific Member
Local time
Today, 08:25
Jan 24, 2012
They used to think everything was made of the four elements: fire, water, earth, and ground. But, a Roman poet first laid the foundational framework for atoms in the first century BC while expanding on Epicurus’s idea of it. This thread is to talk about string theory, which says the universe has 10, or 11, dimensions.

Atomos comes from the Greek word meaning “uncuttable”, and while known to be composed of protons, neutrons, and electrons, were originally thought up as indivisible blocks of matter. From collisions in the void they form solid objects, and as everything is made of them, they’re all we need to know to understand us and the world. As it was a departure from superstitious religious thought, it also became a philosophical belief, not just something someone said.

In chemistry molecules are held together by electric bonds, and carbon bonds are the strongest. There’s the gravitational force, which in quantum physics has its effects exerted through the hypothetical graviton, which was not in Einstein’s original geometric configuration of relativity where mass warps spacetime. The electroweak force affects charged particles and photons. The weak force is what depicts radioactive decay. The strong force holds keeps quarks together through gluons. Since strong theory requires no fewer than 11 dimensions for its math to be consistent, the extra 7 dimensions are curled up so that we can’t see or directly perceive them.

It then posits everything is a vibration, similar to strings on an instrument that can change its pitch or sound depending on how it’s strung. Depending on how a string is vibrated either an electron, proton, or any other particle will manifest because the strings comprise of everything, in string format, spread out in a somewhat small space ready to emit the particles.

The other particles such as muons or taus are just electron counterparts with higher masses, governed by the same rules as the electron (spin 1/2). Its corresponding quarks are similar to its corresponding proton and neutron quarks (u, d) for spin 1 particles: the charges (1/3 and 2/3) equal 1 or 0 for proton or neutron when made up of three quarks. The other spin 1 particles are W and Z sub naught, which occur when a quark changes flavor.

Quark interaction is known as quantum chromodynamics because instead of electrons emitting photons, gluons change colors on the RGB spectrum, used by models for visual aid. W is what changes the charge of a quark and emits neutrinos/anti-neutrinos, which don’t interact with photons or gluons. The s and c quarks were discovered with the muon, and b and t quarks with the tau. Thus, this pattern seems to be repeating and no one knows why, with heavier and more massive particles. These are all “virtual particles” like the graviton in that they are, mostly, mathematical concepts that appear in simulations.

It means much more than “everything is one”, as people just try to take advantage of stuff and use opportunities to get as much out of something as they can. The strings exist on the Plank length which is the same in some ways to Plank time, meaning that light moves a Plank length in Plank time (10^-43 s). It’s impossible to see anything on that scale. No amount of energy can allow us to observe it.


Well-Known Member
Local time
Today, 16:25
Aug 15, 2013
space and aether is not made of atoms, antimater or exotic matter, it only apply to matter.


Local time
Today, 16:25
Aug 16, 2019
As a cognitive bias----or predisposition to say the least----a categorical reductionism is inherent to logic: a system of internal, consistent rules to formulate a coherent sense of reality. Categories simplify the intricacies of patterns as rules and principles do - all is streamlined for easier inferences as a comfort from the unfathomable dynamism to overarching universality.
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